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Beef – Fast Facts

Selecting

Best cuts for oven roasting:
rib eye, top round roast, sirloin tip roast, filet mignon, bottom round rump roast, top round, New York sirloin, ground beef, meat loaf.
Best cuts for pot roasting:
bone-in and boneless underblade, shoulder, bottom round, shank cross cuts, stew meat, corned beef brisket, variety meats (tripe, heart, kidney, tongue).
Best cuts for braising:
pot roast, Swiss steak, sandwich steak, short ribs, stew meat, cube steak, top round steak, eye round steak.

Perfect Portions

General serving size guidelines:
For boneless meats, allow 1/3 lb. per person.
For bone-in meats, allow 3/4 lb. per person. Serving size chart by cut:

Beef Cut Servings* per Pound
Steaks Chuck Shoulder 3 1/2
Chuck Top Blade 3
Flank 4
Porterhouse/T-Bone 2 1/2 to 3
Rib, Rib Eye 2 1/2 to 3
Tenderloin, Top Loin, boneless 3 1/2 to 4
Top Sirloin, boneless 3 1/2 to 4
Top Round, Round Tip 3 1/2 to 4
Roasts Rib Eye 3 to 3 1/2
Rib 2 1/2
Eye Round, Round Tip, Tri-Tip 3 1/2 to 4
Pot Roasts Arm, Blade, Shoulder, boneless 2 1/2 to 3
Brisket 2 1/2 to 3
Other Cuts Beef for Stew 2 1/2 to 3
Ground Beef 4
Short Ribs 1 1/2 to 2 1/2
*One serving equals 3 ounces beef, cook and trimmed.

Cooking Methods - by cut

Beef Cut pan
broil
pan
fry
broil stir
fry
roast grill cook
liquid
braise
Chuck Chuck Top Blade Steak, Chuck Eye Steak, boneless
Chuck Shoulder Steak, boneless * * * *
Chuck Arm Steak
Chuck 7-Bone Steak * *
Chuck Pot Roast, such as Arm, Blade, Shoulder
Rib Rib Steak, Rib Eye Steak
Rib Roast, Rib Eye Roast
Short Loin Porterhouse/T-Bone Steak
Tenderloin Steak, Top Loin Steak
Tenderloin Roast, Top Loin Roast
Sirloin Sirloin Steak, Tri-Tip Steak, Top sirloin, boneless
Round Round Tip Steak, thin cut
Round Steak
Top Round Steak * * * *
Eye Round Steak * *
Eye Round Roast, Round Tip Roast, Top Round Roast
Other Cuts Brisket, Fresh or Corned
Skirt Steak * * * *
Flank Steak * *
* Requires marinating

Oven Roasting

Oven roasting is an excellent way to cook large cuts of meat or poultry with consistently delicious results. Oven roasting requires a shallow roasting pan and placing the meat or poultry on a rack to allow juices to drain and keep the meat out of the drippings. No water is added and no cover required, although whole poultry may be tented with aluminum foil during roasting to prevent the breast from overcooking.

Oven Roasting - Getting It Ready

  • Preheat the oven to 325° Fahrenheit.*
  • If desired, season the roast before cooking with a flavorful herb rub applied to the surface. Place roast, fat side up, on rack in shallow roasting pan.
  • Insert ovenproof meat thermometer into the thickest part of roast, not resting in fat or touching bone. Do not add water or cover.

Oven Roasting - Cooking The Roast

Cook roast 25-30 minutes per pound, using a meat thermometer to test for doneness: 135 ° Fahrenheit indicates medium rare, 150 ° indicates medium. Let stand 1-20 minutes in a warm place to let the meat juices firm up. The internal temperature of the roast will rise 5-10 ° during this time.

*Exception: beef rib roasts should be cooked at 350 ° Fahrenheit, allowing 25-30 minutes per pound.

Beef Cut Oven Temp (preheated) Weight (pounds) Total Cooking Time (hours)
Tip Roast, Medium Rare 425° F 1 1/2 to 2 30 to 40 min.
Medium 425° F 1 1/2 to 2 40 to 45 min.
Round Roast, Medium Rare 325° F 2 to 3 1 1/2 to 1 3/4
Round Tip Roast,. Medium Rare 325° F 3 to 4 1 3/4 to 2
Medium 325° F 3 to 4 2 1/4 to 2 1/2
Medium Rare 325° F 4 to 6 2 to 2 1/2
Medium 325° F 4 to 6 2 1/2 to 3
Medium Rare 325° F 6 to 8 2 1/2 to 3
Medium 325° F 6 to 8 3 to 3 1/2

All cooking times are approximate and are based on beef removed directly from refrigerator.

Pot Roasting

For best results your pot roast should be braised (cooked in moist heat) in a roasting pan, crock pot or oven roasting bag. The moisture from the water enhances the tenderness of the roast during the long, slow cooking process. Your pot roast should always be fork-tender when it is done.

Pot Roasting - Cooking Tips
Preheat oven to 325 ° Fahrenheit. Place roast fat side up in a covered roasting pan. Add water. Roast 25-30 minutes per pound, until meat is fork tender. Allow roast to sit for 10-15 minutes before carving.

Pot Roasting - Total Cooking Time
For roasting pans, cook at 325 ° Fahrenheit allowing 15-30 minutes per pound. For crock pots, follow manufacturer's instructions. For oven roasting bags, follow manufacturer's instructions.

Beef Cut Weight (pounds) Total Cooking Time (hours)
Chuck Pot Roast 2 1/2 to 4 2 to 3
Brisket 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 2 1/2 to 3

Beef for Stewing

Pat beef lightly with seasoned flour, if desired. Slowly brown beef in oil in heavy pan. Drain. Cover beef with liquid; cover and simmer over low heat on stovetop or in 325° F oven per chart, until fork-tender.

Beef Cut Weight(inches) Total Cooking Time (hours)
Beef for Stew 1 to 1 1/2 pieces 1 3/4 to 2 1/4
Ribs 2 x 2 x 4 1 1/2 to 2 1/2
Flank Cross Cut 1 1/2 thick 2 to 3

All cooking times are approximate and are based on beef removed directly from refrigerator.

Beef Stir-Frying

Heat small amount of oil in wok or skillet over medium-high heat until hot.

Stir-fry beef strips* in 1/2 lb. batches (do not overcook), continuously tossing, until outside surface is no longer pink. Add additional oil for each batch. Cook beef and vegetables separately; combine and heat thoroughly.

*To cut your own strips, partially freeze beef for easier slicing. Cut into thin, uniform strips. Marinate to add flavor or tenderize while preparing other ingredients.

Marinating

Marinate and Grill Steaks

Marinate in tenderizing marinade (contains salsa, Italian dressing, lemon juice, etc.) 6 to 24 hours. Grill, uncovered, over medium, ash-covered coals per chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally.

  • Marinate in the refrigerator, never at room temperature.
  • Less tender cuts should be marinated at least 6 hours; marinating longer than 24 hours may result in a mushy texture. TIP: Use Hannaford marinades, Italian dressing, or salsa for a quick marinade.
  • If a marinade is to be used for basting or served as a sauce, reserve a portion of it before adding the beef. Marinade that has been in contact with uncooked meat must be brought to a full, rolling boil before it can be used as a sauce. Never save and reuse a marinade.
Beef Cut Thickness (weight) Total Cooking Time (minutes)
Top Round 3/4 inch 8 to 9
1 inch 16 to 18
1 1/2 inches 25 to 28
Chuck Shoulder 3/4 inch 14 to 17
1 inch 16 to 20
Chuck Blade 3/4 to 1 inch 15 to 18
Flank 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. 17 to 21

Marinate and Broil Steaks

Marinate in tenderizing marinade (contains salsa, Italian dressing, lemon juice, etc.) 6 to 24 hours. Broil on rack of broiler pan so surface of beef is 3 to 4 inches from heat for 1 inch steaks; 2 to 3 inches for 3/4 inch steaks; 1 inch for top round and flank. Broil per chart for medium rare and medium, turning occasionally.

Beef Cut Thickness(weight) Total Cooking Time (minutes)
Top Round 3/4 inch 12 to 13
1 inch 17 to 18
1 1/2 inches 27 to 29
Chuck Shoulder 3/4 inch 10 to 13
1 inch 16 to 21
Flank 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. 13 to 18

Braising

Braising is a moist heat method of cooking recommended for less tender cuts of meat. Trapped by a tight-fitting cover, the moisture from added water enhances the tenderness of the meat during the long, slow cooking process. Whether braising or actually cooking in liquid, the meat should be cooked until fork-tender. Pot roasting is a popular term for braising large cuts of meat.

Braising - Cooking Tips

  • Slowly brown beef on all sides in small amount of oil in heavy pan. Pour off drippings. Season beef, as desired.
  • Add small amount (1/2 to 2 cups) of liquid (e.g. broth, water, juice, beer, or wine).
  • Cover tightly and simmer gently over low heat on stovetop or in 325° F oven according to chart or until fork-tender. Reduce or thicken cooking liquid, as desired.
Beef Cut Thickness (weight) Total Cooking Time (hours)
Chuck Pot Roast boneless
(Arm, Shoulder, or Blade)
2 1/2 to 4 lbs. 2 to 3
Chuck Shoulder Steak, boneless 3/4 to 1lb. 1 1/4 to 1 3/4
Brisket, fresh 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lbs. 2 1/2 to 3
Round Steak boneless
(Eye or Bottom)
3/4 to 1 lb 1 1/4 to 1 3/4
1 to 1 1/2 lbs. 1 3/4 to 2 1/2

Pan juices from braising are very flavorful. Thicken them with flour or cornstarch or cook over medium-high heat to reduce to sauce consistency and serve. For Top Round Steak, braising is not recommended; see grilling.

Cooking Beef in Liquid Coat beef lightly with seasoned flour, if desired. Slowly brown on all sides in small amount of oil in heavy pan. Pour off drippings. Omit browning step for corned beef brisket. Cover beef with liquid (e.g. broth, water, juice, beer, or wine). Add seasoning, as desired. Bring liquid to broil; reduce heat to low. Cover tightly and simmer gently over low heat on stovetop according to chart or until beef is fork-tender. Reduce or thicken cooking liquid as desired.

Pan juices from braising are very flavorful. Thicken them with flour or cornstarch or cook over medium-high heat to reduce to sauce consistency and serve.

For Top Round Steak, braising is not recommended; see grilling.

Cooking Beef in Liquid

  • Coat beef lightly with seasoned flour, if desired. Slowly brown on all sides in small amount of oil in heavy pan. Pour off drippings. Omit browning step for corned beef brisket.
  • Cover beef with liquid (e.g. broth, water, juice, beer, or wine). Add seasoning, as desired. Bring liquid to broil; reduce heat to low.
  • Cover tightly and simmer gently over low heat on stovetop according to chart or until beef is fork-tender. Reduce or thicken cooking liquid as desired.
Beef Cut Thickness (weight) Total Cooking Time (hours)
Beef for Stew 1 to 1 1/2 inches 1 3/4 to 2 1/4
Brisket, fresh 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lbs. 2 1/2 to 3
Brisket, corned 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lbs. 2 1/2 to 3 1/2
3 1/2 to 5 lbs. 3 1/2 to 4 1/2

All cooking times are approximate and are based on beef removed directly from refrigerator.

Grilling Beef

  • Prepare charcoal for grilling. When coals are medium and ash-covered, spread in single layer. Position cooking grill. (To check temperature, cautiously hold the palm of your hand above the coals at cooking height. Count the number of seconds you can hold your hand in that position before the heat forces you to pull it away, approximately 4 seconds for medium heat.)
  • Season beef as desired. Place on cooking grid directly over coals.
  • Grill according to chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally. (Gas grill brands vary greatly; consult owner's manual for grilling guidelines.)
Beef Cut Thickness (weight) Total Cooking Time (minutes)
Tenderloin 1 lb. 13 to 15
Ribeye, Boneless 3/4 lbs. 6 to 8
1 b. 11 to 14
Ribeye, Bone-In 3/4 lbs. 6 to 8
1 lb. 9 to 12
T-Bone/Porterhouse 3/4 lbs. 10 to 12
1 lb. 14 to 16
Top Loin (Strip) 3/4 lbs. 10 to 12
1 lb. 15 to 18
Top Sirloin 3/4 lbs. 13 to 16
1 lb. 17 to 21
Flank Steak (marinate) 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. 17 to 21
Top Round Steak (marinate) 3/4 lbs. 8 to 9
1 lb. 16 to 18
1 1/2 lbs. 25 to 28 (grill covered)
Ground Beef Patties 1/2 x 4 (4 = 1 lb.) 11 to 13
3/4 x 4 (4 = 1 1/2 lb.) 13 to 15

Pan-Broiling

  • Beef Heat heavy nonstick skillet 5 minutes over medium heat.
  • Season beef as desired. Place in preheated skillet (do not overcrowd).
  • Pan-broil according to chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally. Remove excess drippings from skillet as they accumulate.
Beef Cut Thickness (weight) Total Cooking Time (minutes)
Ribeye Steak 3/4 inch 8 to 10
1 inch 12 to 15
Top Loin Steak, boneless 3/4 v 10 to 12
1 inch 12 to 15
Tenderloin Steak 3/4 inch 7 to 9
1 inch 10 to 13
Top Sirloin Steak, boneless 3/4 inch 10 to 13
1 inch 15 to 20
Ground Beef Patties 1/2 inch x 4 (4 = 1 lb.) 10 to 12
3/4 inchx 4 (4 = 1 1/2 lb) 12 to 15

Steaks for Broiling

Broil on rack of broiler pan so surface of beef is 3 to 4 inches from heat for 1 inch steaks; 2 to 3 inches for 3/4 inch steaks and 1 inch for tenderloin. Broil per chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally.

Beef Cut Thickness (inches) Total Cooking Time (minutes)
Tenderloin 1 inch 13 to 16
Ribeye, Boneless 3/4 inch 8 to 10
1 inch 14 to 16
Ribeye, Bone-In 3/4 inch 9 to 12
1 inch 13 to 17
T-bone/Porterhouse 3/4 inch 10 to 13
1 inch 15 to 20
Top Loin (Strip) 3/4 inch 9 to 12
1 inch 13 to 17
Top Sirloin 3/4 inch 9 to 12
1 inch 16 to 21

Steaks for Sauteing

Heat a small amount of oil in skillet over medium-high heat until hot. Place steaks in preheated skillet (do not overcrowd). Do not add water or cover. Cook steaks according to chart, turning once.

Beef Cut Thickness (inches) Total Cooking Time (minutes)
Eye Round 1/2 inch 2 to 4
Chuck Top Blade 1/2 inch 3 to 4
Round Tip 1/8 to 1/4 inch 1 to 2
Cubed 3

Premium Oven Roast

Tenderloin Roast
Heat oven to 425° F. Place roast, fat side up, in shallow roasting pan. Insert ovenproof meat thermometer in thickest part of roast. Do not add water or cover.

Roast according to chart. Remove when meat thermometer registers 135° F for medium rare, 150° F for medium. Let the roast stand for 15 minutes. Temperature will continue to rise 10° F to reach desired doneness, and roast will be easier to carve.

Standing Rib Roast
Heat oven to 350° F. Place roast, fat side up, in shallow roasting pan. Insert ovenproof meat thermometer in roast. Do not add water or cover. Roast according to chart. Remove when meat thermometer registers 135° F for medium rare, 150° F for medium. Let roast stand for 15 minutes. Temperature will continue to rise 10° F to reach desired doneness and roast will be easier to carve.

Ribeye Roast
Heat oven to 425° F. Place roast, fat side up, in shallow roasting pan. Insert ovenproof meat thermometer in thickest part of roast. Do not add water or cover. Roast according to chart. Remove when meat thermometer registers 135° F for medium rare, 150° F for medium. Let the roast stand for 15 minutes. Temperature will continue to rise 10° F to reach desired doneness, and roast will be easier to carve.

Beef Cut Weight (pounds) Total Cooking Time (hours)
Tenderloin Roast 2 to 3 (center cut) Medium rare: 35 to 40 mins.
Medium: 45 to 50 min.
4 to 5 Medium rare: 50 to 60 min.
Medium: 60 to 70 min.
Standing Rib Roast 4 to 6
(2 ribs)
Medium rare: 1 3/4 to 2 1/4
Medium: 2 1/4 to 2 3/4
6 to 8
(2 to 4 ribs)
Medium rare: 2 1/2 to 2 1/2
Medium: 2 3/4 to 3
8 to 10
(4 to 5 ribs)
Medium rare: 2 1/2 to 3
Medium: 3 to 3 1/2
Rib Eye Roast Boneless, Small End 3 to 4 Medium rare: 1 1/2 to 1 3/4
Medium: 1 3/4 to 2
4 to 6 Medium rare: 1 3/4 to 2
Medium: 2 to 2 1/2
Rib Eye Roast Boneless, Large End 3 to 4 Medium rare: 1 3/4 to 2 1/4
Medium: 1 3/4 to 2
4 to 6 Medium rare: 1 3/4 to 2
Medium: 2 to 2 1/2
6 to 8 Medium rare: 2 1/4 to 2 1/2
Medium: 2 1/2 to 3

Thawing & Freezing

Ground Beef

  • Ground beef is more perishable than other cuts of beef. Be sure to look for the "use or freeze by" date on the package label.
  • Ground beef should be stored in the meat compartment or the coldest part of the refrigerator until ready to use. For best quality, do not freeze ground beef for more than four months.
  • Thaw in the refrigerator, not at room temperature. If you use a microwave to defrost ground beef, cook it right away.

Maximum Recommended Freezer Storage Times for Quality

Type of Beef Freezer (0º F or colder)
Steaks, Roasts 6 to 12 months
Beef for Stew 6 to 12 months
Ground Beef 3 to 4 months
All Others 2 to 3 months

NEVER DEFROST MEATS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE!

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